Election Day: A Tuesday in November?

Please explain why federal elections in the United States are held on the first Tuesday of November. What is the historical significance of this day and why was it chosen for elections?
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Founding Fathers: How Old Were They?

What were the ages of the following Founding Fathers of the United States on July 4, 1776: George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, Paul Revere, Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and Patrick Henry?
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Thomas Jefferson
"All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience to remain silent."

- Thomas Jefferson

Abraham Lincoln
"Those who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves; and, under a just God, can not long retain it."

- Abraham Lincoln

Order of Succession?

Please explain the order of succession in the United States if the President dies, becomes incapacitated, or is otherwise unable to complete their term of office.
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Who can I vote for?

In the United States, is it mandatory to vote for the candidate of the political party I am registered with?
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Switching Parties & Voting

In the United States, how does changing my political party affiliation affect my voting rights in primary elections, caucuses, and general elections? Please provide details for each type of election.
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Theodore Roosevelt
"A man who is good enough to shed his blood for his country is good enough to be given a square deal afterwards."

- Theodore Roosevelt